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  What is BTX?  

Botulinum toxin (BTX) type A was developed by Alan Scott a Californian ophthalmologist who published first in 1980 the BTX injections into extra ocular muscles as an alternative treatment to strabismus surgery in children.

In 1984 the therapeutic indications of BTX extent very quickly to the treatment of blepharospam (involuntary spasm of eye closure) and hemifacial spasm. Then BTX injections was shown to be efficient in the treatment of spasmodic torticollis (dystonic spasms of the neck muscles), spasmodic dysphonia (spasm of the vocal cords) and oro-mandibular dystonia (spasm of the jaw muscles).

Patients with asymmetry of the face, following facial palsy and patients with bruxism may also benefit from this treatment.

Recently, BTX has been licensed for the treatment of hyper functional lines in particular the frown lines and for the treatment of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

Botulinum toxin is a protein secreted by a bacterium, called Clostridium Botuli and purified to be use in therapeutics.

BTX is composed by a heavy chain, which is responsible of the specific bindings on the cholinergic fibers endings and a light chain which is responsible of the enzymatic activity of the BTX. The limited action on cholinergic fibers due to this specific bindings is one of factors of safety of the BTX.

At the junction nerve-muscle there is a blockage of the release of acetylcholine, which is a chemical substance responsible for muscle contraction.

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